Howdy, Stranger!

It looks like you're new here. If you want to get involved, click one of these buttons!

Please read the forum rules before posting.



Check if you are posting in the correct category.



The Off Topic section is not meant for discussing Cookie Clicker.

Skills [Uio ripping off Aurellians which is made by Uio]

1356715

Comments

  • YosukeHanamuraYosukeHanamura Member Posts: 908 ✭✭
    I start chopping the tree with Orpheus.
    Then, i try to make a club, but can't make a very good one.
    In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

    In theory, a particle and its anti-particle have the same mass as one another, but opposite electric charge, and other differences in quantum numbers. For example, a proton has positive charge while an antiproton has negative charge. A collision between any particle and its anti-particle partner is known to lead to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to various proportions of intense photons (gamma rays), neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.

    Annihilation usually results in a release of energy that becomes available for heat or work. The amount of the released energy is usually proportional to the total mass of the collided matter and antimatter, in accord with the mass–energy equivalence equation, E = mc2.

    Antimatter particles bind with one another to form antimatter, just as ordinary particles bind to form normal matter. For example, a positron (the antiparticle of the electron) and an antiproton (the antiparticle of the proton) can form an antihydrogen atom. Physical principles indicate that complex antimatter atomic nuclei are possible, as well as anti-atoms corresponding to the known chemical elements.

    There is considerable speculation as to why the observable universe is composed almost entirely of ordinary matter, as opposed to an equal mixture of matter and antimatter. This asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the great unsolved problems in physics. The process by which this inequality between matter and antimatter particles developed is called baryogenesis.

    Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms is one of the most difficult materials to produce. Individual antimatter particles, however, are commonly produced by particle accelerators and in some types of radioactive decay. The nuclei of antihelium have been artificially produced with difficulty. These are the most complex anti-nuclei so far observed.

    Formally, antimatter particles can be defined by their negative baryon number or lepton number, while "normal" (non-antimatter) matter particles have a positive baryon or lepton number. These two classes of particles are the antiparticle partners of one another.

    The idea of negative matter appears in past theories of matter that have now been abandoned. Using the once popular vortex theory of gravity, the possibility of matter with negative gravity was discussed by William Hicks in the 1880s. Between the 1880s and the 1890s, Karl Pearson proposed the existence of "squirts" and sinks of the flow of aether. The squirts represented normal matter and the sinks represented negative matter. Pearson's theory required a fourth dimension for the aether to flow from and into.

    The term antimatter was first used by Arthur Schuster in two rather whimsical letters to Nature in 1898, in which he coined the term. He hypothesized antiatoms, as well as whole antimatter solar systems, and discussed the possibility of matter and antimatter annihilating each other. Schuster's ideas were not a serious theoretical proposal, merely speculation, and like the previous ideas, differed from the modern concept of antimatter in that it possessed negative gravity.

    The modern theory of antimatter began in 1928, with a paper by Paul Dirac. Dirac realised that his relativistic version of the Schrödinger wave equation for electrons predicted the possibility of antielectrons. These were discovered by Carl D. Anderson in 1932 and named positrons (a portmanteau of "positive electron"). Although Dirac did not himself use the term antimatter, its use follows on naturally enough from antielectrons, antiprotons, etc. A complete periodic table of antimatter was envisaged by Charles Janet in 1929.

    The Feynman–Stueckelberg interpretation states that antimatter and antiparticles are regular particles traveling backward in time.

    There are compelling theoretical reasons to believe that, aside from the fact that antiparticles have different signs on all charges (such as electric charge and spin), matter and antimatter have exactly the same properties. This means a particle and its corresponding antiparticle must have identical masses and decay lifetimes (if unstable). It also implies that, for example, a star made up of antimatter (an "antistar") will shine just like an ordinary star. This idea was tested experimentally in 2016 by the ALPHA experiment, which measured the transition between the two lowest energy states of antihydrogen. The results, which are identical to that of hydrogen, confirmed the validity of quantum mechanics for antimatter.

    Positrons were reported in November 2008 to have been generated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in larger numbers than by any previous synthetic process. A laser drove electrons through a gold target's nuclei, which caused the incoming electrons to emit energy quanta that decayed into both matter and antimatter. Positrons were detected at a higher rate and in greater density than ever previously detected in a laboratory. Previous experiments made smaller quantities of positrons using lasers and paper-thin targets; however, new simulations showed that short, ultra-intense lasers and millimeter-thick gold are a far more effective source.

    Antimatter cannot be stored in a container made of ordinary matter because antimatter reacts with any matter it touches, annihilating itself and an equal amount of the container. Antimatter in the form of charged particles can be contained by a combination of electric and magnetic fields, in a device called a Penning trap. This device cannot, however, contain antimatter that consists of uncharged particles, for which atomic traps are used. In particular, such a trap may use the dipole moment (electric or magnetic) of the trapped particles. At high vacuum, the matter or antimatter particles can be trapped and cooled with slightly off-resonant laser radiation using a magneto-optical trap or magnetic trap. Small particles can also be suspended with optical tweezers, using a highly focused laser beam.

    In 2011, CERN scientists were able to preserve antihydrogen for approximately 17 minutes.

    Scientists claim that antimatter is the costliest material to make. In 2006, Gerald Smith estimated $250 million could produce 10 milligrams of positrons (equivalent to $25 billion per gram); in 1999, NASA gave a figure of $62.5 trillion per gram of antihydrogen. This is because production is difficult (only very few antiprotons are produced in reactions in particle accelerators), and because there is higher demand for other uses of particle accelerators. According to CERN, it has cost a few hundred million Swiss francs to produce about 1 billionth of a gram (the amount used so far for particle/antiparticle collisions). In comparison, to produce the first atomic weapon, the cost of the Manhattan Project was estimated at $23 billion with inflation during 2007.

    Several studies funded by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts are exploring whether it might be possible to use magnetic scoops to collect the antimatter that occurs naturally in the Van Allen belt of the Earth, and ultimately, the belts of gas giants, like Jupiter, hopefully at a lower cost per gram.

    Matter–antimatter reactions have practical applications in medical imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET). In positive beta decay, a nuclide loses surplus positive charge by emitting a positron (in the same event, a proton becomes a neutron, and a neutrino is also emitted). Nuclides with surplus positive charge are easily made in a cyclotron and are widely generated for medical use. Antiprotons have also been shown within laboratory experiments to have the potential to treat certain cancers, in a similar method currently used for ion (proton) therapy.

    Antimatter has been considered as a trigger mechanism for nuclear weapons. A major obstacle is the difficulty of producing antimatter in large enough quantities, and there is no evidence that it will ever be feasible. However, the U.S. Air Force funded studies of the physics of antimatter in the Cold War, and began considering its possible use in weapons, not just as a trigger, but as the explosive itself.
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    Damn. This skill is cool.

    Bashing one of the stones against another, I'll try to get one with a decently-sharp edge, and then skin the boar as best as I can.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭

    Immediately spin the Roulette.

    You get Mirroring.

    I follow the super mysterious man's directions.

    You find a town, with people who aren't gonna try murder you.

    I start chopping the tree with Orpheus.
    Then, i try to make a club, but can't make a very good one.

    You shred the base of the tree and it falls over, severing itself. You then take one of its branches and make a club.
    Goldra said:

    Damn. This skill is cool.

    Bashing one of the stones against another, I'll try to get one with a decently-sharp edge, and then skin the boar as best as I can.

    Alright, you get a boar-skin.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    I'll get all of the fur off of it, and wait for it to dry into leather in the sun.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    edited May 13
    Goldra said:

    I'll get all of the fur off of it, and wait for it to dry into leather in the sun.

    I don't think that's how it works but it does.

    --------------------

    Meanwhile, I get to the caravan and trade the bag of minerals for the skill Enchantment
    (Yes he's a tutor, but why would I tell you when I can tell and show you)
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    After Mirroring the not actually leather due to an incorrect process leather, I'll cut a strip of it off, leaving it to the side to work as a belt.

    Pulling one of the boar's bones out and breaking it in half, I'll pull one of the splinters out, working a small hole into the end and grabbing and ripping some blades of grass to function as thread. I feed them through some of the leather, making a makeshift pair of leather pants and a leather shirt, some of the material on the waist of the pants poked out and pushed forward to function as belt loops.

    I'll place a half of the bone I broke, my sling, and a leather pouch (made with the same methods mentioned above) within the belt as I put it on, holding it there.

    Time to go look for other people.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    After Mirroring the not actually leather due to an incorrect process leather, I'll cut a strip of it off, leaving it to the side to work as a belt.

    Pulling one of the boar's bones out and breaking it in half, I'll pull one of the splinters out, working a small hole into the end and grabbing and ripping some blades of grass to function as thread. I feed them through some of the leather, making a makeshift pair of leather pants and a leather shirt, some of the material on the waist of the pants poked out and pushed forward to function as belt loops.

    I'll place a half of the bone I broke, my sling, and a leather pouch (made with the same methods mentioned above) within the belt as I put it on, holding it there.

    Time to go look for other people.

    If anyone wants to take you (Stats on main post) they can come and fight, but I can give you what's left of the barb camp.
    Shit works btw.
    Even though I could just be like: You see me and instantly get slapped for 6 damage. Thanks for giving me the strongest one btw. We'd both be doing half the others damage, but I have better tricks. Also I'm standing next to a npc player.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    I'll take the Barb Camp. Easier to steal from.
    (Also that half of a bone is a weapon; looked at my character sheet.)
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    edited May 13
    Goldra said:

    I'll take the Barb Camp. Easier to steal from.
    (Also that half of a bone is a weapon; looked at my character sheet.)

    Yes but it's shit and would only do the same as slingerino.

    You enter the barb camp, already ransacked and one is half dead.

    3/5 | 5/5
    2 def | 3 def
    Profit | Change

    15/15
    3def
    Omniscient (Literally rolled this, enjoy the big bad)

    You don't know he is, so you'll be surprised. It's also not full Omniscience.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    I'll load my sling, hiding a ways away from the camp and just watching to see how the guards move about.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    I'll load my sling, hiding a ways away from the camp and just watching to see how the guards move about.

    There's two guards at the main entrance, and there's what looks like a hole near the back of the camp, where workers are putting logs to block it off. There's a guard at the back and you'll get one or two attacks in before he arrives.

    The camp has a few huts, and has one of those stereotypical upright log fences around it. The area around has been cleared of trees and bushes to make sure it's fortified.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    If I can do it from afar, I'll wait until one of the guards is carrying logs, and mirror them to crush him.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    If I can do it from afar, I'll wait until one of the guards is carrying logs, and mirror them to crush him.

    The guards aren't carrying the logs, the workers are. The two at the entrance don't move either. Also you assumed their gender.

    They have logs inside their fort or near the entrance. You can crush a worker but that wont do much.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    It'll freak the guards out.

    I'll crush both of the workers.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    It'll freak the guards out.

    I'll crush both of the workers.

    Two workers come out, pick up a log and put it on their shoulders, you duplicate it and it crushes them. The mirror dissipates and it looks like an accident.

    The guards go over to lift the log off them, or they'll surely be crushed to death.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    As they do, I run up to the camp, firing a rock with my sling and mirroring it as many times as I can in the air to hit one of the guards before running off to the side of the camp, looking around in case there were any stones that had been left.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    As they do, I run up to the camp, firing a rock with my sling and mirroring it as many times as I can in the air to hit one of the guards before running off to the side of the camp, looking around in case there were any stones that had been left.

    You shoot 3 stones at the more battered one, two hit and one makes a cracking sound. You deal 2 and 1 damage, killing him.

    (Mirroring is like a +1 damage, but if you try make too many I'll roll a die to see how many hit. If you miss one in a streak all the ones after will also miss. If you use it too much I'll slap a penalty on you)
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    (Mind giving me a penalty counter, then?)
    I'll run out to where they haven't cleared, and grab a rock from there.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • BreadstickBreadstick Member Posts: 533 ✭✭✭
    I look around the town for a place to rest at.
    I sell bread and baking accessories.
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    (Mind giving me a penalty counter, then?)
    I'll run out to where they haven't cleared, and grab a rock from there.

    You wont get a penalty if you don't do anything silly, if you overstep you'll know.
    You pick up another rock, it's not like they're rare.

    I look around the town for a place to rest at.

    You walk into an inn and they give you a room. First day is free. They recommend going and getting enrolled in the guard if you want decent pay.
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    edited May 13
    I'll run back out, Mirroring the guard's sword (or whatever weapon he's using) before firing a rock at him--it'll be upside-down, and so he'll be holding a blade, potentially cutting him and definitely causing him to drop both swords.

    Either that, or it'll appear above his sword, and will probably do nothing, aside from inconvenience him.

    Edit: read through the posts and they're just wearing gloves, fuck. Guess I'll just fire a rock and mirror it.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    I'll run back out, Mirroring the guard's sword (or whatever weapon he's using) before firing a rock at him--it'll be upside-down, and so he'll be holding a blade, potentially cutting him and definitely causing him to drop both swords.

    Either that, or it'll appear above his sword, and will probably do nothing, aside from inconvenience him.

    Edit: read through the posts and they're just wearing gloves, fuck. Guess I'll just fire a rock and mirror it.

    Yup, they're punchy wizbois.

    You hit with two rocks, and deal one damage to the remaining dude.
    4/5
    3 def
    Change

    15/15
    3def
    Omniscient

    Big boy comes out, has a nice book in his hands. He casts a barrier around him and the other lad.
    The other dude will throw a projectile at you that turns the ground underneath you into quicksand, you'll be trapped in it if you don't react.
    ;)
    What's a sig btw
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    I'll throw the chunk of bone I brought up in the air, and mirror the fuck out of it in an attempt to block what's coming. After applying the spell to it a few times, I'll jump back.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
  • UiomancantUiomancant Member, Cool, Flagger Posts: 9,964 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Goldra said:

    I'll throw the chunk of bone I brought up in the air, and mirror the fuck out of it in an attempt to block what's coming. After applying the spell to it a few times, I'll jump back.

    You block it, but you used mirror too much and feel tired. The ground underneath the bones turn to quicksand. The rest of them bounce off the shield, breaking it.

    The big lad will cast a spell, and it will rupture the ground with roots which try to grab you. The small lad will run out of the shield and at you.
    What's a sig btw
  • ManiklasManiklas Member Posts: 2,827 ✭✭✭
    Starting skill: Conjuration (Earlygame tools gonna be pretty helpful)

    artifact NO. 1, if not availabe; add one, square, then subtract one.
  • SphealSpheal Member Posts: 197 ✭✭
    Summon a Griffon and fly to the town
    spheals are round
    spheals are good
  • BreadstickBreadstick Member Posts: 533 ✭✭✭
    I try to get enrolled in the guard.
    btw how do i replenish my health?
    I sell bread and baking accessories.
  • ¤RunninginReverse¤¤RunninginReverse¤ Member, Friendly Posts: 15,831 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Will Mirrored objects remain after this Roulette wears off? Gonna decide my next move based off that.
    New game.
    ---
    Soundcloud
  • YosukeHanamuraYosukeHanamura Member Posts: 908 ✭✭
    I try to make it more dangerous, but not much since lack of materials.
    In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

    In theory, a particle and its anti-particle have the same mass as one another, but opposite electric charge, and other differences in quantum numbers. For example, a proton has positive charge while an antiproton has negative charge. A collision between any particle and its anti-particle partner is known to lead to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to various proportions of intense photons (gamma rays), neutrinos, and sometimes less-massive particle–antiparticle pairs.

    Annihilation usually results in a release of energy that becomes available for heat or work. The amount of the released energy is usually proportional to the total mass of the collided matter and antimatter, in accord with the mass–energy equivalence equation, E = mc2.

    Antimatter particles bind with one another to form antimatter, just as ordinary particles bind to form normal matter. For example, a positron (the antiparticle of the electron) and an antiproton (the antiparticle of the proton) can form an antihydrogen atom. Physical principles indicate that complex antimatter atomic nuclei are possible, as well as anti-atoms corresponding to the known chemical elements.

    There is considerable speculation as to why the observable universe is composed almost entirely of ordinary matter, as opposed to an equal mixture of matter and antimatter. This asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the great unsolved problems in physics. The process by which this inequality between matter and antimatter particles developed is called baryogenesis.

    Antimatter in the form of anti-atoms is one of the most difficult materials to produce. Individual antimatter particles, however, are commonly produced by particle accelerators and in some types of radioactive decay. The nuclei of antihelium have been artificially produced with difficulty. These are the most complex anti-nuclei so far observed.

    Formally, antimatter particles can be defined by their negative baryon number or lepton number, while "normal" (non-antimatter) matter particles have a positive baryon or lepton number. These two classes of particles are the antiparticle partners of one another.

    The idea of negative matter appears in past theories of matter that have now been abandoned. Using the once popular vortex theory of gravity, the possibility of matter with negative gravity was discussed by William Hicks in the 1880s. Between the 1880s and the 1890s, Karl Pearson proposed the existence of "squirts" and sinks of the flow of aether. The squirts represented normal matter and the sinks represented negative matter. Pearson's theory required a fourth dimension for the aether to flow from and into.

    The term antimatter was first used by Arthur Schuster in two rather whimsical letters to Nature in 1898, in which he coined the term. He hypothesized antiatoms, as well as whole antimatter solar systems, and discussed the possibility of matter and antimatter annihilating each other. Schuster's ideas were not a serious theoretical proposal, merely speculation, and like the previous ideas, differed from the modern concept of antimatter in that it possessed negative gravity.

    The modern theory of antimatter began in 1928, with a paper by Paul Dirac. Dirac realised that his relativistic version of the Schrödinger wave equation for electrons predicted the possibility of antielectrons. These were discovered by Carl D. Anderson in 1932 and named positrons (a portmanteau of "positive electron"). Although Dirac did not himself use the term antimatter, its use follows on naturally enough from antielectrons, antiprotons, etc. A complete periodic table of antimatter was envisaged by Charles Janet in 1929.

    The Feynman–Stueckelberg interpretation states that antimatter and antiparticles are regular particles traveling backward in time.

    There are compelling theoretical reasons to believe that, aside from the fact that antiparticles have different signs on all charges (such as electric charge and spin), matter and antimatter have exactly the same properties. This means a particle and its corresponding antiparticle must have identical masses and decay lifetimes (if unstable). It also implies that, for example, a star made up of antimatter (an "antistar") will shine just like an ordinary star. This idea was tested experimentally in 2016 by the ALPHA experiment, which measured the transition between the two lowest energy states of antihydrogen. The results, which are identical to that of hydrogen, confirmed the validity of quantum mechanics for antimatter.

    Positrons were reported in November 2008 to have been generated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in larger numbers than by any previous synthetic process. A laser drove electrons through a gold target's nuclei, which caused the incoming electrons to emit energy quanta that decayed into both matter and antimatter. Positrons were detected at a higher rate and in greater density than ever previously detected in a laboratory. Previous experiments made smaller quantities of positrons using lasers and paper-thin targets; however, new simulations showed that short, ultra-intense lasers and millimeter-thick gold are a far more effective source.

    Antimatter cannot be stored in a container made of ordinary matter because antimatter reacts with any matter it touches, annihilating itself and an equal amount of the container. Antimatter in the form of charged particles can be contained by a combination of electric and magnetic fields, in a device called a Penning trap. This device cannot, however, contain antimatter that consists of uncharged particles, for which atomic traps are used. In particular, such a trap may use the dipole moment (electric or magnetic) of the trapped particles. At high vacuum, the matter or antimatter particles can be trapped and cooled with slightly off-resonant laser radiation using a magneto-optical trap or magnetic trap. Small particles can also be suspended with optical tweezers, using a highly focused laser beam.

    In 2011, CERN scientists were able to preserve antihydrogen for approximately 17 minutes.

    Scientists claim that antimatter is the costliest material to make. In 2006, Gerald Smith estimated $250 million could produce 10 milligrams of positrons (equivalent to $25 billion per gram); in 1999, NASA gave a figure of $62.5 trillion per gram of antihydrogen. This is because production is difficult (only very few antiprotons are produced in reactions in particle accelerators), and because there is higher demand for other uses of particle accelerators. According to CERN, it has cost a few hundred million Swiss francs to produce about 1 billionth of a gram (the amount used so far for particle/antiparticle collisions). In comparison, to produce the first atomic weapon, the cost of the Manhattan Project was estimated at $23 billion with inflation during 2007.

    Several studies funded by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts are exploring whether it might be possible to use magnetic scoops to collect the antimatter that occurs naturally in the Van Allen belt of the Earth, and ultimately, the belts of gas giants, like Jupiter, hopefully at a lower cost per gram.

    Matter–antimatter reactions have practical applications in medical imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET). In positive beta decay, a nuclide loses surplus positive charge by emitting a positron (in the same event, a proton becomes a neutron, and a neutrino is also emitted). Nuclides with surplus positive charge are easily made in a cyclotron and are widely generated for medical use. Antiprotons have also been shown within laboratory experiments to have the potential to treat certain cancers, in a similar method currently used for ion (proton) therapy.

    Antimatter has been considered as a trigger mechanism for nuclear weapons. A major obstacle is the difficulty of producing antimatter in large enough quantities, and there is no evidence that it will ever be feasible. However, the U.S. Air Force funded studies of the physics of antimatter in the Cold War, and began considering its possible use in weapons, not just as a trigger, but as the explosive itself.
  • GoldraGoldra Member Posts: 2,637 ✭✭✭
    Again, I'll try to jump out of the spell. I'll probably still be tired, but at least the other bandit will have to run around the roots, if he wants to get up close with me.
    "You don't get famous by stating that you are getting more famous. That's nonsense!" ~Karlolin
    "IT HASN'T EVEN PREMIERED ON THE THE-oh i guess you live in the US" ~Karlolin
    "Why won't you yiff with me ;.; " ~Anon9mous
    "The frosting... it's so.... mmm.... " ~Reepile
    "When the Worldstar guy is freaked the fuck out, you know there's a problem." ~Papa Franku
Sign In or Register to comment.