Reloading the page can be exploited to give you the desired outcome 100% of the time. This is however an exploit and will be considered cheating by some and acceptable for others; so keep that in mind. You do not have to utilize all of this information or any at all. Thank you for your understanding.
Cookie clicker is a pretty balanced game with choices that can lead to both positive and negative outcomes. By saving before these choices one may force the hand of fate in one's favor. By saving (ctrl + S) before a choice, such as casting a spell, one may reload (ctrl + R) if the spell does not give the desired outcome.
Golden and wrath cookies:
The timer for golden cookies or golden cookies on screen will not be saved, and a golden cookie will there for disappear after reloading. Golden cookie effect such as 7x Cps for 77 seconds will save and may be reloaded to the time of saving. If you loaded at the start of a golden cookie effect and reload shortly after the effect will count down from the time it was saved again. If there was a save with 50 seconds left of an effect, reloading will cause the effekt to count down from 50 seconds again (Note: this will also reload the cookies in bank and is therefore not usable for infinite buff).
Wrath cookies work in much the same way. By saving when a wrath cookie has spawned one may reload if it generates a negative result going back to before the debuff was activated therefore erasing it, or giving you back your removed cookies. Reloading will not make the wrath cookie reappear giving you a second shot, but will only remove the negative effect from a failed wrath cookie.
In the case of a meaty, bifructal, golden or mature sugar lump, it may drop different amounts of sugar lumps upon harvesting it. Buy saving before harvesting it manually one may reload until it drops a favorable amount. For example reloading if a meaty lump gave 1 or zero lumps, until it yields 2 lumps.
Your mana bar is saved but so is the spell outcome, spell out comes are chosen before you cast a spell. If you save and a spell fails reloading will get you the mana back but that spell (and all others) will still fail. To work around this you can cast a cheap spell with an irrelevant outcome like haggler's charm, that way you may try again quickly when you mana bar is refilled.
Casting spontaneous edifice will always grant or loose the same building; as does force the hand of fate seem to give the same golden cookie effect though with a variation i cookies given from lucky.
Some plants in the garden have a next to no chance of appearing (Read the wiki for more info). The tick timer continues even when the game is reloaded making it impossible to save and reload right before a natural tick; you can however save and generate a tick with a sugar lump before reloading. If you have set up an ideal garden for generating a plant, you can get it pretty quickly by using a sugar lump and reloading until the desired plant has mutated; you will still end up using a sugar lump but you avoid waiting for a one in a thousand occurrence, making the one sugar lump spent worth it.
Auto saves and accidents
The game autosaves every minute which is something to be vary of when exploiting, this is however very useful for when an accident occurs. A less cheaty way of using the reload is if a building has been wrongfully purchased or one accidentally sold, so remember if you do end up making a mistake you can always do a quick reload to fix it.